How can I improve my argumentation ability, especially in writing?

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Answer by David Throop:

There are a number of ways, some traditional and others not so. 
The suggestion that I would make, in order to improve both your writing and your argumentation skills is simple. 
Write a persuasive paragraph.  Next, write another one that builds off the first one.  Finally write a third one building off your points in the first two paragraphs. 
Now take it to someone you know, have them read it to you and make a counter argument to the one you just had read back to you.  What can you say to counter what your original point was? Is there a glaring whole that you can see in your argument?
Now ask your friend to do the same.  Have them listen to your reading and ask them to counter back on any of the points you've addressed.
What this technique does is allows you hear the tone of your writing, is it persuasive? Does it sound natural with a genuine rhythm – does it sound the way you speak and "hear" it in your head?
Also, it allows you to hear the potential problem points in your perspective and argument.  By hearing your words from another mouth, you'll get better perspective on the way in which you write and think.  It'll also make your thoughts more clear to you than the internal monologue you have within yourself.
To make permanent, lasting change, there are 3 things you need to do. I've written about them on my blog The 3 Things You Do To Sabotage Success: How To Stop Limiting Yourself! – but in essence they boil down to the following 3 things.
1) Decide on what to change.
2) Envision the outcome and work backward.  Develop small micro-accomplishments you can focus your efforts on.
3) Examine your own thinking.  Are you quietly sabotaging your chances for change by self-doubt and limiting mindsets?  If you believe you can, or can't do something, you're correct.

How can I improve my argumentation ability, especially in writing?